From a paper on housing costs in California by Berkeley's John Quigley and Steven Raphael:
Quigley and Raphael add:
"These figures show a clear positive relationship between the average price of a constant quality unit of housing and the degree of anti-growth regulation. Housing price and rental rates are roughly 30 to 50 percent higher in the most regulated cities relative to the least regulated cities. Moreover, if we omit the one anomolous city with twelve growth restriction measures, housing costs—rents and house values—rise monotonically with the degree of regulation."